考研英语翻译疑难长句特点分析
作者:未知       时间:11-25

  考研英语阅读和翻译的特点千变万化,这里将和各位分享三个最常见的特点:句子成分超长、语序颠倒和句子原文省略。

  一、句子成分超长

  和托福、雅思等国外流行的考试一样,现在的考研英语也表现出一种成分越来越长的趋势,而考生在练习阅读的过程中要尽可能适应这样一种出题方式,比如充当主语的可以有:名词,非谓语动词,从句等。下面举两个例子进行说明:

  2005年翻译原句:

  Creating a European identity that respects the different cultures and traditions which go to make up the connecting fabric of the Old Continent is no easy task and demands a strategic choice.

  分析:这句话的复杂之处在于句子的主语是一个动名词短语结构,主语从Creating…到Old Continent,而且在主语中还有两个定语从句,一个是由that 引导的,另一个是由which来引导。此句话的特点是主语和谓语结构极其不协调,主语超长,但是谓语越短。因此,理解这句话的关键是要首先能够从句中提取出主语,并且正确理解两个定语从句,然后才能顺利完成整个句子的阅读。

  译文:不同文化和不同的传统把欧洲大陆编织在一起,要创造出一种尊重这些文化和传统的欧洲品牌(欧洲所独有的东西)绝非易事,需要人们做出战略性选择。

  类似的结构如:

  2004年阅读中出现:With thousands of career-related sites on the Internet, finding promising openings can be time-consuming and inefficient.意为尽管网上有成千上万个与职业相关的网站,但是想找到有前景的职位空缺却是耗时而又没有效率的。

  除了超长的动名词短语外,考研中还时有出现主语从句来充当主语。主语从句充当主语的情况在考研中有两种:一种是把从句放在句首,还有一种是把从句放在句尾,句首用it做形式主语。

  比如,2005年阅读理解中的一句话:

  However, whether such a sense of fairness evolved independently in capuchins and humans, or whether it stems from the common ancestor that the species had 35 million years ago, is as yet, an unanswered question.

  分析:这句话主语从whether开始到…ago结束,主语是由两个whether引导的主语从句构成的,并且在第二个主语从句中还有一个由that引导的定语从句。

  译文:然而,这种公平感是卷尾猴和人类分别进化的结果,还是源自3500万年前这一物种共同的祖先,还是一个没有结论的问题。

  再如,2000年翻译中的一句话:

  Furthermore, it is obvious that the strength of a country's economy is directly bound up with the efficiency of its agriculture and industry, and that this in turn rests upon the efforts of scientists and technologists of all kinds.

  分析:这句话中就是非常典型的it做形式主语,真正的主语是由that引导的两个主语从句。

  译文:再者,显而易见的是一个国家的经济实力与其工农业生产效率密切相关,而效率提高则又有赖于各种科技人员的努力。

 二、语序颠倒

  语序颠倒在考研中最明显的一种情况就是宾语后置情况,而且往往会考试中造成很大的障碍,那么什么叫做宾语后置呢?

  这里先举一个简单的例子,比如很多男同学在交女朋友的时候心里往往会许下心愿:I will make you happy. 这句话的结构很简单:主+谓+宾+宾补,可是在考研当中往往会因为宾语较长而把宾语放到补足语的后面,比如: 2003年翻译中的65题:

  Thus, the anthropological concept of culture, like the concept of set in mathematics, is an abstract concept which makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding.

  分析:这句话中which引导定语从句修饰concept, makes possible immense amounts of concrete research and understanding直译过来就是“创造出可能的大量的具体研究及理解”,可其实这句话中的possible是宾语补足语,它真正的结构是makes immense amounts of concrete research and understanding possible,即:“使大量的具体研究和认识成为可能”。

  此句供同学们思考:

  Friedrich Engels, however, predicted that women would be liberated from the social, legal, and economic subordination of the family by technological developments that made possible the recruitment of the whole female sex into public industry.

 三、句子原文省略

  考研中有时需要考虑到篇幅的问题,所以会对原文进行删节,而且作者在行文过程中本着语言简明扼要的要求,所以如果在句子中出现与前面或后面重复的成分,文章中基本上会把能省略掉的东西全部省略掉。对付这类情况的办法就是能够在短时间内恢复句子的原貌。

  例:2003年阅读理解

  It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional. Small wonder. America's life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure.

  分析:这里有两处省略,一是省略death is,二是can be…;这里的省略都是因为上文提到相应的内容,因此下文就将相同的内容省略。如果补全的话,全句应为:It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada death is inevitable and in California death is optional. Small wonder. America's life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression can be controlled, cataracts can be removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure.

  译文:据说,在英国死亡是迫在眉睫的,在加拿大死亡是不可避免的,在加州是可以选择的,这种说法并不奇怪。在过去一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎增长了一倍。髋骨坏了可以更换,临床忧郁症得到了控制,白内障通过三十分钟的手术例可以切除。

  当然,想突破长难句就要多加练习,并且熟悉各种长句的结构,才能达到得心应手的程度。

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