2013考研英语复习语法要点:否定 结构
作者:佚名       时间:09-25

2013考研英语复习语法要点:否定结构

I.部分否定
  若all, both , everyone, everybody, every等词充当主语或修饰、限定主语,谓语动词为
  否定式,则构成部分否定.
  Both windows are not open.
  两扇窗户都没有开。(误)
  并非两扇窗户都开着。〔正)
  Every scientist is not a genius.
  每一位科学家都不是天才.(误)
  并非每一位科学家都是天才。(正)
  All the students are not boys.
  所有的学生都不是男孩。(误)
  并非所有的学生都是男孩。(正)
  注意:both, every, all的全部否定分别为neither of, no, none Of.
2. cannot help+doing sth.…
    cannot but十do sth.…
  cannot help but+do sth.…
  1)"cannot help + doing"是一种双重否定结构,意为“禁不住”、“不得不”。其中的help意
  为“避免”、“抑制”.例如:
  Hearing the sad news,she could not help crying.
  The little girl was so beautiful that no one who saw her could help loving her.
  2)"cannot but + do”也是一种双重否定结构,其中的but意为except。此句型与上例相
  同,只是比较正式,多用于书面语。例如:
  I could not but laugh on seeing such a funny sight.
  3)"cannot help but+do”多用于美国英语。
  Living conditions could not help but improve,at least for a while.
  He's a chap you could not help but admire.
3. There be+no+n. /pron.+but+V...
  这是一个双重否定结构.这里n。可以用表示否定的其他词代替,如few, little, noth-
  ing, nobody等.由于but为关系代词,相当于who / which八hat. . . not,它引导的从句
  只能是肯定结构,从句中的谓语动词的单复数由but前的先行词决定.例如:
  There are few of us but admire your courage.
  我们人人都佩服你的勇气。
There is nothing in the world but
世界上的一切东西都能给我们启示
teaches us some good lesson.
There is no man but has his faults.
人人都有缺点。
never , scarcely , seldom等的否定式主句+but引导的肯定式从句
这是一个双重否定结构,其中but意为when / where... not。例如:
I never go past that kindergarten but I think of my happy childhood there.
每当我走过那所幼儿园,我就会想起在那里度过的幸福童年。
No man is so old but that he may learn.
活到老学到老。
He is not such a fool but that he can see the reason.
他没有愚盆到不明事理的地步.
It is a pity but we knew more about him.
可惜当时我们对他了解不够。
5. cannot+do/be+too/over+adj./adv./V(过去分词)
  这是表达强烈的肯定语气的否定式结构,意为“越……越好”、“再怎样……也不过分”其
  中can后面也可用其他否定词,如hardly, scarcely, never来代替not.例如:
  You cannot begin the practice too early.
  练习开始得越早越好。
6
We can hardly praise the film too highly.
对这部电影我们无论怎样赞美都不过分。
This point cannot be overemphasized.
这一观点再怎样强调也不过分。
The value of this book cannot be overestimated.
这本书的价值无论估计得多高也不过分。
not so much…as二。
more二。than…
no more than…
no/not
I)not so
·一any more
much…
life does
as
than…
…“与其说……不如说··一”
Success in
not depend so much on one's school record as on one's diligence and
persistence.
一个人事业的成功与其说取决于学习成绩,不如说取决于勤奋和毅力.
The oceans do not so much divide the world as unite it.
海洋与其说是分离了世界,倒不如说是将世界统一起来了。
I should say Henry is not so much a writer as a reporter.
我要说,享利与其说是作家,不如说是记者。
注意:"not so much A as B”是一个部分否定结构,否定A而肯定B。另外,"not so much
as”与前上述结构不同,这是一个表示强调的否定结构,意为“甚至,·,…都没有”例如:
He just left without so much as saying goodbye.
他连再见也没说声就走了。
The policeman walked through the crowd without so much as turning his face to either
side.
那个警察目不斜视地从人群中走过去。
2) more…than…“与其说··,,二不如说··一”
This piece of writing is more like a news report than a short story.
这篇作品与其说是短篇小说,不如说是新闻报导。
The administrator is a "trained" man who is more a specialist than a generalist.
管理人员是“受过培训”的人员,与其说他是通才,不如说他是专门人才。
He is shyer than unsociable.
与其说他孤僻,不如说他太腼腆.
注意:more A than B是郁分否定结构,肯定A而否定B。试比较not so much A as B句
型。其中,A,B可为名词、形容词或副词.
妙no more…than…“同·”·一样不”
The enemies can no more change its true nature than the leopard can change its spots.
敌人改变不了他们的本性就正如豹子改变不了它身上的斑点。
He's no more fit to be a minister than a fool would be.
他能当部长傻瓜也能当。
  He is no more a god than we are.
  他和我们一样不是神。
  4) no/not…any more than二。“同····林一样不……”
  There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take,any more than they
  can limit how much water you drink.
  他们没有理由限制你吸收多少维他命,就正如他们不能限制你该喝多少水一样。
  A salesman may not know of the process of production any more than a chemist may
  know of physics.
  一位销售人员可以不要借生产过程就像一位化学家可以不要位得物理学一样。
  注意:这一结构通常主句为否定式,而any more than后边的从句为肯定式。
7. still (even,much) more...
  still (even,much) less...
  注意:这两组都能表示“更不要说”这一含义,但是,st川(even, much) more只能用于肯
  定句中,而still (even, much) less则只能用于否定句中.例如:
  He doesn't like music,still less singing.
  他不喜欢音乐,更不用说唱歌了。
  He can manage the most complicated movements,much more a simple trick like this.
他能做各种最复杂的动作,更不用说这么简单的一着了。
He knows nothing of mathematics,still less of chemistry.
他对数学一窍不通,更不要说化学了。
另外,还有一类短语也可以表达“更不要说”这一含义,如let alone, to say nothing of,
not to speak of, not to mention。不过,这些短语既可用于肯定句,亦可用于否定句中。
  He didn't have enough money to buy a used car .let alone a new one.
  他连买一辆旧车的钱都没有,更不要说买一辆新的了。
  He knows Latin and Greek .let alone English.
  他精通拉丁文和希腊语,更不要说英语了。
  The scholar is well versed in Latin,not to speak of English.which is his mother
    tongue.
  这位学者精通拉丁文,他的母语英语就更不用说了。
  Dave is handsome and smart,not to mention being a good athlete.
    城维漂亮又聪明.还是个出色的运动员。
  The sentence is very awkward, to say nothing of being obscure.
  这个句子别扭得很,更别提它语义晦涩了。
S. too+adj.+二。to...结构
  I)如果这里形容词为ready, eager, apt, inclined, willing, easy等时,too... to结构所
  表达的是肯定语气。例如:
  He was too eager to know the result of the exam.
  他非常揭望知道这次考试的结果.
    We are too apt to overlook our own faults.
我们很容易忽视自己的错误。
2)如果在too... to结构前加上but, only, all, not等,那么,but, all, only, not+
too... to这一结构表示的也是肯定语气,例如:
You know but too well to hold your tongue.
你深知少说为好。
English is not too difficult to learn.
英语并不难学。

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