2013考研英语复习语法要点:虚拟结构
作者:佚名       时间:09-25

2013考研英语复习语法要点:虚拟结构

1. If条件旬中的应拟式
  if条件句中的应拟式是一种规范的虚拟式,它一般可分为三种情况,即对现在、过去、将
  来行为的盛拟.我们可列表如下:
┌──┬────────────┬───────────────────┐
│    │if从句(V)               │主句(V)                               │
├──┼────────────┼───────────────────┤
│现在│、动词的一般过去时或were│would (should, might, could)+动词原形 │
├──┼────────────┼───────────────────┤
│过去│had十过去分词           │would (should,might,could)+have+    │
│    │                        │过去分坷                              │
├──┼────────────┼───────────────────┤
│将来│should/were to+动词原形 │would(should, might, could)+动词原形  │
└──┴────────────┴───────────────────┘
例如:
If my tooth went worse,I should have to have it pulled out.
I would not have made the mistakes if I had followed your advice.
If I were to tell him all I know,he would be amazed.
研究生英语人学考试很少考这种非常规范的虎拟式,下面两种变体倒是应该引起我们的
注愈:一是错综虚拟式,一是虚拟式的倒装结构.例如:
If he had followed my advice,he would recover already.
(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反)
If it had not been for the teacher's help,it wouldn't be possible for us to succeed.
(从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反)
在if虚拟句中,有时将if省去,将谓语动词were或助动词did, had, should移至主语
前.构成倒装.例如:
Had she been given some information,she could have answered the questions.
Had we time to spare, we would be glad to go to the park.
Were it not for the discovery of electricity,the modern world would be cast in great in-
convenience.
Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
Were it to rain,we would stay at home.
2.谓语动询用过去时来衰示的班拟式.
    I)would rather
      would as soon
      would sooner十从句(V用过去时)
      had just as soon
  例如:
  I would rather you came tomorrow.
  I'd just as soon you didn't behave like that.
  2) wish十宾语从句(V用过去时表示现在、将来的愿望,用过去完成时表示过去的愿
  望).例如:
  I wish I were a freshman again.
  I wish I could have gone to the movies with you last night.
  3) It is time+从句(V用过去时表示虚拟,亦可用should+动词原形表示虚拟,这里
  should不能省略)。例如:
  It is high time that you got (should get)dressed.
  It is about time that this controversy were (should be) put an end to.
3.V+宾语从句
  宾语从句中的谓语动词用should+动词原形或将should省去。
  这里V二demand, insist, order, propose, move(提出动议)desire, require, request
  advise,prefer, recommend, urge, decree(命令),vote等。例如:
  I moved that he be discharged for his serious mistakes.
  The court decreed that he should pay the fine in full.
4. It Is ordered (suggested,demanded, moved,planned...)+that...  在这一句型中,that从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟式,即should+动词原形或将should
    省去。例如:
  It was moved that more teachers (should) be sent to help them.
    It was ordered that the books (should) be sent at once.
5.同位语从句或衰语从句中的班拟式
  在和idea, necessity, plan, motion, order, proposal, recommendation, suggestion, un-
  derstanding,agreement,desire,requirement,request,resolution, decision, advice等
  词有关的同位语或表语从句中,谓语动词用动词原形或should+动词原形表示虚拟语
    气。例如:
  Emphasis is laid on the necessity that all the objectives to be attained be taken into ac-
  count before starting a new project.
  My idea is that the group (should) hold another session to discuss the problem.
6. It is+adj.+that…(should)+V.. .
  这里的形容词主要有以T一些:necessary, essential, fundamental, imperative, indis-
  pensable,appropriate,vital,strange,urgent,advisable,preferable,possible等.例
  如:
  It is advisable that he (should) give up smoking.
  It is appropriate that she (should) be dressed like that.
  It is imperative that a meeting (should) be held at once.
  注愈:上述形容词用在V + it + adj. +that…结构中同样须用虚拟式.例如:
  The government deemed it indispensable that the prices (should) be controlled.
  He considered it advisable that she (should)give up the plan.
7.某些特殊的盛拟式
  有时虚拟的情况不用if引导的虚拟条件句来表述,而用介词如without, but for, but
  that(接从句);或分词如supposing引出的从句;或并列连词如or, otherwise, but,
  though;或动词如suppose引出的祈使句或通过上下文的意思来表达。此时句中谓语动
  词仍采用虚拟式的相应形式。例如:
  But for your help,the child would have been drowned.
  He fled away,or he would have been arrested.
  I would do so in your place.
  Suppose there were no gravitational force,objects would not fall to the ground when
  dropped.

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