2013考研英语复习语法要点:非谓语动词
作者:佚名       时间:2012/9/25 13:53:20

2013考研英语复习语法要点:非谓语动词

1.不定式的时态和语态。
  如果不定式的动作发生在主句的动作之前,不定式应该用完成时即to have done或to
  have been done;如果不定式的动作和主句的动作同时发生,不定式就应该用进行时,即
  to be doing,不定式进行时一般没有被动态;如果不定式动作发生在过去某一时间并且
  ,是一直在进行的动作则用完成进行时;如果不定式表示将要发生的动作则用一般形式,
  即to do或to be done。我们不妨列表如下:
┌─────┬─────────┬─────────┐
│体别      │主动态            │被动态            │
├─────┼─────────┼─────────┤
│一般形式  │to do             │to be done        │
├─────┼─────────┼─────────┤
│进行时    │to be doing       │一般不用          │
├─────┼─────────┼─────────┤
│完成时    │to have done      │to have been done │
├─────┼─────────┼─────────┤
│完成进行时│to have been doing│一般不用          │
└─────┴─────────┴─────────┘

  例如:
  They are said to have graduated from the University.
  (不定式动作先于主句动作之前)
  When he came in。I happened to be lying in bed.
  (不定式动作和主句动作同时进行)
  Researchers are known to have been doing a vast amount of work during the past few
  years in improving nat[一ral material.
  (不定式动作发生在过去且一直在延续)
  The bank was reported to have been robbed yesterday.
  ‘不定式动作发生在主句动作之前且为被动动作)
2.衰示本来打算做而实际未完成的动作
  某些表示愿望、想法的动词的过去时+to have done八o have been done,系动词be的
  过去时was或were+to have done八o have been done,某些情态动词+have done/
  have been done可以表示本来打算做而实际未完成的动作。例如:
    We were to have met at ten.
  I intended to have had the bike repaired last night,but I was too busy at that time.

They hoped to have completed the project before June.
You should have filled out the form earlier.

But for the delay I could have finished the work.
注意:这里所指的表示愿望、想法的动词过去时主要有:wished, expected, desired, in-
  tended,hoped,meant,wanted等。
3.若千固定词组之后的不定式
  在若干固定词组之后的不定式用动词原形,
rather than,sooner
  than,cannot,may as well,would just as soon,would rather…than,do nothing but
  等。例如:
  I would rather go later.
  You had better do the assignment by yourself.
  I would just as soon stay at home.
  I would rather die than betray my motherland.
4.不定式省略to的情况
  1)如果主语部分有一个动作动词do,这个动作可以是限定动词形式,也可以是非限定
  动词形式,且不论什么时态、体态均可。一般情况下,句子的主语由all充当或为形容词最
  高级形式修饰、限定;或主语前有all, only等修饰限定,此时,不定式可省略to.例如:
  All I did was empty the bottle.
  All she seems to do is gossip with her neighbors.
  The worst you can do is become very lazy.
  The best thing to do was wait and wait.
  What I really wanted to do was drive all night.
  2)在某些固定搭配中,如make do with, make believe, let slip, let go, leave go, hear
  say等,不定式也可省略to
5.衰示目的、理由、功能、宜圈等众义的名调充当主语时
  凡表示目的、理由、功能、愈图等意义的名词充当主语时,其主语补语应采用不定式(to
  +动词原形)。即purpose, objective, goal, aim, function, reason, intention ...+is
    +to do sth....。例如:
  The primary reason why the constitution requires a census every ten years is to provide
  a basis for the apportionment of representative among the states.
  His aim is to become a congressman.
6.某些动词+介词+宾语+宾语补足语
  某些动词+介词+宾语结构后须接不定式作宾语补足语。如arrange for, ask for,
  long for,wait for,vote for, count on,rely on等。例如:
  I will arrange for you to come.
  We waited for that to be done.
  You can't depend upon john to be there when he is needed.
7.某些不能!接接不定式的动词
  某些动词不能直接接不定式,须在不定式前加上疑问词,如know, teach, explain, tell
  learn, advise等.例如:
  He didn't know whether to laugh or to cry when he heard the words.

    He has learned how to write a business letter.
  I hope you'll explain to me how to do the job.
8.衰示结果,尤其是衰示不,料想或不希且发生的动作
  用来表示结果,尤其是表示不曾料想或不希望发生的动作时,可在前加。my,即。my to
  do sth.…。例如:
  He got there in a hurry only to find the train had gone.
  He came into the manager's office only to be told that he was dismissed.
  如果在。my to do前加上if,则表示原因,意为“仅仅因为”,亦可变成从句if only be-
  cause...。例如:
  Instructors may present their own views,if only to demonstrate that it is possible to
  make carefully reasoned choices about ethical dilemmas.
  教员们可能会陈述他们自己的观点,仅仅是因为想证明在道德的奢境中做出仔细推敲的
  选择是可能的。
  There will be more famines,if only because the world's population is growing faster
  than food production.
  世界人口增长速度正在超过粮食增长速度,仅这个原因,到时候也会出现更多的饥荒。

 

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