2013考研英语复习语法要点:分词
作者:佚名       时间:09-25

2013考研英语复习语法要点:分词

1.分词的时态
  现在分词有两种时态形式:一般式和完成式。现在分词的一般式与谓语动作同时发生,完
  成式表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。例如:
  Having got everything ready,they got down to map out a plan for the construction of a
    new express way.
  (分词动作先于主句谓语动作)
  Arriving home at daybreak,he felt tired.
  (分词动作和主句谓语动作同时发生)
  Having failed several times,they need some encouragement.
  (分词动作先于主句谓语动作)
2.分词的邃辑主语
  分词在句中常做状语,修饰主句的谓语,表示时间、原因或伴随状况等.因此,分词的逻辑
  主语就是主句的主语.分词的逻辑主语的语态必须与主句的主语保持一致.例如:
  Entering the room,nobody was found in it.(误)
  Entering the room,I found nobody in it.(正)
  (意为When I entered the room ... )
  Seeing from the hill,the village looks very beautiful.(误)
  Seen from the hill,the village looks very beautiful.(正)
  (village承受T see这个动作而不是发出see这个动作)
  Having met with an accident,the newspaper correspondent was not able to send a ca-
  ble.(= Because he had met with an accident…)
3.独立主格结构
  这是考研的重点语法项目。分词或分词短语作状语时,如果其逐辑主语和句子谓语动词
  无法一致时,该分词或分词短语就要带上自己的主语,构成分词的独立主格结构。这种结
  构可以表示原因、时间、条件,以及伴随动作等,有时这种结构前带有介词with。例如:
  The students having done all the exercises, the teacher went on to explain the text.
  The report having been read,a lively discussion began.
  (With) all factors considered,we think this program may excel all the others in achiev-
  ing the goal.
  独立结构中的being, having been有时可省去。例如:
  The question (having been) settled, the meeting adjourned.
  This (having been) done,we began to start out.

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