2013考研英语复习语法要点:定语从句
作者:佚名       时间:09-25

2013考研英语复习语法要点:定语从句

I.先行词是不定代词或被形容甸.离级或only修饰
  当先行词为all, everything, something, anything, none, little, much等或为形容词最
  高级或only修饰限定时,关系代词必须用that而不能用which。例如:
    The little that I can do will not even be noticed.
  This is the only hotel that can provide such a kind of service.
  There is much that you are in a position to do.
2. which与as的区别
  which可以用在一个非限定性的定语从句中,修饰限定主句中的先行词或整个句子,as
  也可在定语从句中作主语,代表整个句子。例如:
  He saw the girl,as/which he hoped.
  He married her, as/which was natural.
  The ships were frozen in,as/which not infrequently happens in those regions.
  但是,由as引导的定语从句可以前It,而which分句则不可以。
  As was natural,he married her.(正)
  Which was natural,he married her.(误)
  同时,as作关系代词可用于the same ... as, such ... as, as…as等结构中。例如:
  We find such machines as will best stand up to hard weather.
  Such people as knew Tom admired him.
  另外,as有时也可里于先行词后引导一个定语从句或分词结构,这时定语从句的谓语常
  以系动词be开头,be亦可省去;as还可引导倒装结构,意为“也一样··一”。例如:
  We hope the measures to control prices,as taken by the government,will succeed.
  Daivd works hard,as do my brothers.
3.双,限制
  如果一个先行词为两个定语从句修饰限定,我们称之为双重限定.例如:
  Is there anything else you'd like that you don't see on the shelves?
  There was one thing he told me which I don't believe.
  在上述两例中,先行词后面的两个定语从句不在同一层次上.如第一句中,(that) you'd
  like的先行词是anything else,而that you don't see on the shelves in先行词则为any-
  thing else you'd like.我们可再看两个例子:
  Is there anything you want that you have not?
  Mr. Lee is the only dealer I know who gives good prices.
4. prep.+关系代词结构
  这种结构多用于正式文体,能这样用的关系代词主要是which,其次为whom,偶尔也可
  用whose.例如:
They tried to think of a plan by which they could fulfil their task ahead of time.
The driver was the man from whose room she had stolen the maps.
与关系代词搭配的介词也可以是复杂介词。例如:
I will now introduce the candidate in support of whom[wish to speak.
在这种prep.+关系代词的结构中,介词的选择是一个复杂的问题,它可与前面的名词
词组搭配,也可与后面的动词、形容词等搭配。例如:
This depends on the purpose for which the exhaust steam is used. (for与purpose搭
配)
Radial flow turbines differ in the manner in which the steam flow is arranged. (in与先
行词manner搭配)
The material of which the apparatus is made is a good nonconductor of heat. (of与is
made搭配)
Opportunities are provided by which poor but worthy students could work out all cost
of living. (by与先行词opportunity搭配)
在prep.十关系代词前亦可加上名词或代词或其他限定词,即名词短语some , none ,
all, each, most, both, many, several等+prep.+which/whom结构。例如:
The buses,most of which are already full,were surrounded by an angry crowd.
He introduced me to his children,two of whom volunteered to go with me as a guide.
She gave me a book the title of which I've forgot.
S. prep.+关系代词+to do sth.结构
这是非限定性的定语从句。例如:
The library is a good place in which to read.

I have nothing about which to worry.
At last there was something about which to write.
Tom wants a boy with whom to play.
注意:一般情况下,我们说在定语从句中,in which二where,但在这类结构中,where不
可取代in which,除非将后面改写成一个完整的定语从句。

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