2013考研英语复习语法要点:形容词与比较结构
作者:佚名       时间:09-26

2013考研英语复习语法要点:形容词与比较结构

1.不能采用比较级与最离级的形容词
  英文中有一种形容词叫绝对形容词((absolute adjective),它们不能有比较级和最高级。这
  类词有perfect, absolute, vertical, true, correct, wrong, right, unique, false, round,
  ready, empty, parallel等.
2.某些拉丁语转为英文的形容词
  superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, posterior, preferable等拉T语转为英文的形
  容词表示比较时不能在前加more,后接to而不接than。例如:
  He is superior to me in mathematics.
  She is three years junior to me.
  Tom is senior to Mary by three years.
3. a十V.或a+n.构成的形容词
  这类词包括:ablaze, aflame, akin, alive, alone, astray, averse, awake, ashamed,
  asleep, afraid等。这类词一般都作表语,但当有副词修饰时,它们也可作定语。例如:the
  fully awake patient, a somewhat afraid soldier, a really alive student.如果名词前有最
  高级或last, only等词修饰限定,它们也可以充当后里定语。例如,
  He is the happiest man alive.
  This is Tom's last journey alive.
  这是汤姆生前最后一次旅行.
4. The more…the more…结构
  就这一结构来说,前面是从句,后面是主句。它可以修饰限定的成份包括补语、状语、宾语
等。例如:
The quicker you get ready, the quicker we'll be able to leave.
The more grain we produce,the greater will be our achievement.
The less she worried,the better she worked.
The more air there is inside the tyre,the harder it is pressed together.
如果将主句前置,主句的比较级位于句末且能省略the.例如:
The farther a body gets away from the surface of the earth,the less it weighs.
=A body weighs less the farther it gets away from the surface of the earth.
一个物体离地球越远,它就变得越轻.
The more hydrogen is compressed into the balloon,the larger it will become.
=The balloon will become larger the more hydrogen is compressed into it.

5. as…as…,more…than…结构
  在as ... as ... , more ... than ...结构中,如果有much,many,more,less等词插
  人,则应改为as much of a…as…,more of a…than...,less of a....than…
  as many of…as…等.例如:
  It was as much of a success as I had hoped.
  它就像我预料的那样成功。
  He is more of a sportsman than his brother.
  他比他兄弟更像一名运动员。
  He is less of a fool than I thought he was.
  他不像我想象的那么傻。
  He is more of a poet than a musician is.
  与其说他是位音乐家还不如说他是一位诗人.
  He is now more of a hypocrite than ever before.
  他现在比以前更虚伪了。
  I would suggest you make more of an effort to find them.
  我建议你作更大的努力去设法找到他们。
  I'd like to see more of you.
  我希望常见到你。
6. as... as和more than比较结构中的省略
  1)在as或than分句中省略谓语的全部。例如:
      This car is not so expensive as the other one.
      这一辆小车不像那辆那么贵。
      He is taller than the boy we saw yesterday.
      他比我们昨天看见的那个男孩高.
  2)在as或than分句中省略谓语的一部分。例如:
      The end of the movie wasn't as good as the beginning was.
      这部电影的结尾不像开头那么精彩.
      Jane would do it much more quickly than I would.
      简做这件事可能比我快得多。
      有时在as或than分句中以助动词do代替主句的谓语.
      They bought fewer books than I did.
  3) as或than经常在比较分句中充当主语。例如:
      His speech makes it clear that in certain respects progress has not been as fast as
      had been hoped.
      他的演讲清楚表明在某些方面进步不像料想的那样快。
      Progress with the building of the bridge was not so good as was expected.
      建桥的进度不像指望的那样好.
      This hotel is far more luxurious than is necessary.
      这家旅馆没有必要这么豪华。
,。比较结构衰示不同质.物之间的比较
  如果比较结构表示不同质事物之间的比较,as或than分句通常不可以采取省略的形式。
    例如:
  He is not so wise as he is witty.
  他讲话妙趣横生但不够明智。
  The girl was as brilliant as she was beautiful.
    这姑娘既聪明又漂亮。
  He did not love his uncle,who was as base and unworthy as his father had been upright
    and honorable.
  他不喜欢他的叔叔。他叔叔既卑哪又无能,不像他父亲那样正直,受人薄敬.
S., as... as结构的修饰
  修饰as... as结构可以是nearly, almost, just, exactly, twice (three) times, not near-
  ly, nothing like, by no means, nowhere near等等,这些修饰语置于as... as结构之前。
    例如:
  John is nearly as big as you are.
  约翰几乎和你一样魁梧。
    Cast-iron is almost as useful a material as steel.
  铸铁差不多和钢材一样有用。
  Your work is nowhere near as good as mine.
  你的工作远不如我的好。
9.最离级比较结构的修饰
  修饰最高级比较结构可以是by far, much easily, nearly,almost,by no means,noth-
ing like, nowhere near, next, second等等。例如:
How much did the second
This hat is by far/much/l
most expensive house cost?
no means/nothing like/nowhere near the biggest.

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