2013考研英语复习语法要点:时态
作者:佚名       时间:09-26

2013考研英语复习语法要点:时态

1. It be the first/second八bird…+time/person...+that +S+V(完成时)…
  注意:如果be为is或will be, that从句中的谓语动词应该用现在完成时,如果be为
  was, that从句中的谓语动词为过去完成时。例如:
  If the Pathfinder mission to the Mars which is due to begin in the next week succeeds。
  it will be the first time that man has reached that mysterious planet.
  It is the third person that I have encountered in the street this morning.
  It was the fourth time that someone had knocked at my door that night.
  It is the first time that I have been to New York,so I am very exited.
  其实,该句中的主语不一定非it不可,人、物、时间均可做主语.例如:
  You are the first person that I have met this morning.
  Last summer was the third time that they had been accused publicly of stealing books
    from the libraries.
2.将来完成时will have done/will have been done...
  该句结构一般与by引导的将来完成时连用.例如:
  By the end of the next week,we will have fulfilled more than half of the assignment.
  By the end of this term,we shall have learned English for eight years.
  Others will have come by the time he gets the furnace fixed.
  如果表示的是将来某个时间之前一直在持续的动作,则可用将来完成进行时will have
  been doing这种形式.例如:
  By the end of this term,John Barry will have been teaching in this university for twen-
    ty years.
  注意,will have done也可以用来表示对过去动作的推测,相当于may /might have done,
  语气不如must have done那样强。例如:
  You will have heard about the traffic accident that had happened last night on the
  avenue by now.
  Short of unexpected delay on his way, he will have arrived the airport by now.
3.情态动调+have done...
  must have done表示对过去动作的推测,意为“一定”,语气较强。
  may have done表示对过去动作的推测,意为“可能”,语气一般。
  m馆ht have done表示对过去动作的推测,意为“或许”,语气较弱.

should have done表示本来应该作而未作,语气较强。
ought to have done表示本来应该做而未作,语气较弱。
could have done表示本来能够作而未作。
need have done表示本来有必要作而未作。
注意,must have done的否定形式为can't have done,不存在can have done或mustn't
have done这样的形式.would have done一般只用在与if条件句连用的盛拟语气结构
中。例如:
It must have rained last night for the road is wet.
They must have been playing tennis in the park when you phoned.
They shouldn't have left so heavy a job to a little child like this.
You should have told me about it earlier.
They might have derived inspiration from his remarks.
You needn't have written to me for I had told you everything I know on the phone.
You ought to have told me that earlier.
m谊ht have done有时也可用在表示与事实相反的虚拟语气中,表示“能够”,“本来应该”例:

  I might have fulfilled the work earlier.
  You might have known she'd refuse.
4.现在进行时和将来进行时衰示什划、打算要做的.
  例如:
  John is leaving Beijing for New York the day after tomorrow.
  Mary will not be able to visit her parents tonight because she will be giving a press con-
  ference.
  表示将来计划、打算做某事的结构还有be to do sth. , be about to do sth.,和be going to
  do sth.。其中,be about to do sth.表示即将做某事;be going to do sth.除T表示计划,打
  算做某事这一含义之外,还可表示客观要发生的事情;be to do还可用在与if连用的条件
  句中;be to do的被动式be to be done表示“可以”“必须”,它的否定式be not to be done
  表示“禁止’,“不准”。例如:
  They are to meet at the airport at seven o'clock.
  The plane is about to take off in several minutes.
  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if food shortage is to he
  avoided.
  The problem is to be solved right away,otherwise great dangers will emerge.
  These reference books are not to be taken out of the library.
  The liquid is not to be exposed to air, for it will soon evaporate.
S.静态动词
  所谓静态动词是指表示静止状态的动词.这类动词可分为四类。第一类为be和have;第
  二类动词为belong to, cost, matter, own等;第三类动词是表示感觉的动词,如hear,
  see feel taste, smell等;第四类为表示心理状态的动词,如believe, consider, expect,
think,forget,hate,hope,imagine,know,like,love,remember,understand,wish
等.这一类动词通常不用在进行时中,例如:
Put everything back where it belongs before you leave.
It costs him six months of hard work to do that.

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