2013考研英语复习英译汉:长句的拆解
作者:佚名       时间:09-26

2013考研英语复习英译汉:长句的拆解

    英语与汉语之间的区别之一就是英文长句子多(尤其是在议论文、说明文中),而汉语则
短句子多。在历年的翻译试题里,总有两到三个长句子,因此,将长句拆解成短句是考生必备
的能力之一。如果完全按照英文的句式结构进行翻译,不仅有时根本无法译通,而且,即使勉
强译通了,也让人觉得欧化痕迹严重,使人读得喘不过气来。我们不妨看下面这个句子:
例1. Twenty-five years after the founding of the United States,we can not fail to recog-
      nize the changes that have occurred in the world of today in all essential aspect and,
      most particularly,with respect to international life upon the emergence of new
      States,all of which makes it incumbent upon us to find new formulae to bring the
      constituent principles of the Organization up to date taking into account the experi-
      ence gained over a quarter of a century and ideals that justify its existence.
    这个句子连标点共89个词,包括一个主句,三个定语从句,that have occurred.... all
'of which makes…和that justify...,一个分词结构taking into account。前两个定语从句的
先行词为the changes,第三个定语从句的先行词为the ideals。分词结构带有两个宾语:the
experience和the ideals.这个句子的结构如此复杂,如果不拆句翻译,无论如何也是译不通
的。我们只有按照汉语习惯,用短句子将其译出:
    自联合国成立至今已有二十五年了,现在我们不得不承认当今世界在一切主要方面所
发生的变化,尤其是一些新兴国家的出现所带来的国际秩序的变化。所有这些变化都使我们
有责任寻找新的方案来更新联合国的基本原则,从而将联合国在过去四分之一世纪里所获
得的经验和证明其存在的合理性的那些理念考虑进去。
    在译文里,我们将第一个定语从句和第三个定语从句译成定语,而将第二个定语从句拆
译成与主句平行的句子。
    拆解长句子的方法很多,如将定语从句译成原因状语、目的状语、方式状语或短语等等,
但必须遵循一个原则:不违背原文。
例2. The interests of peace prompt us to speak in restrained and measured language and to
      avoid any escalation of mutual recrimination which would be likely to compromise
    patient and discreet quest for a peaceful settlement of this conflict.
    这里的定语从句不一定要译成定语,可以将它译成一个原因状语从句,或译成与主句平
行的分句。例如:
    和平的利益促使我们用克制而有分寸的语言讲话,以避免相互指贵的升级,因为这种升
级很可能不利于耐心、审懊地寻求和平解决这一冲突的办法。
例3. Kunta's home training had been so strict that, it seemed to him,his every move
      drew Binta's irritated finger-snapping-if, indeed,he wasn't grabbed and soundly
      whipped.
    该句中有一个由s。二。that...引导的结果状语从句,但在翻译时,我们不一定死扣这个
从句,不妨将它拆译成:
    良塔所受的家教非常严格。在他看来,自己的每一个动作都会引起宾塔的怒火,即使不
是把他一把抓住,痛抽几鞭.
例4. It is true that during their explorations they often faced difficulties and dangers of
      the most perilous nature,equipped in a manner which would make a modern climber
      shudder at the thought,but they did not go out of their way to court such excitement.

    这个句子有一个主语从句,一个定语从句,一个分词结构,在翻译时,我们可以将原有结
构拆开,将它译成:
    的确,在探险的全过程里,他们经常面临粉最具胃险性的艰难脸阻.他们的装备令现代
的登山者一想起来就不寒而栗,但是他们并非故意寻求这样的刺激。
例5. 1 am always amazed when I hear people saying that sport creates good will between
      the nations, and that if only the common peoples of the world could meet one anoth-
    er at football or cricket,they would have no indignation to meet on the battlefield.
    这个句子里有状语从句、宾语从句和虚拟语气等结构,在翻译时可以将主句I am al-
ways amazed 2于最后,将宾语从句it于句首,将其译成与主句平行的分句:
    有人说,运动会能够带来国与国之间的亲善,并且认为只有世界上的普通民族能够在足
球场或板球场上一争高低时,他们才不会在战场上兵戎相见。听到这种说法,我总感到惊奇。
例6. The peace which Oxford one knew,and which a great university city should always
      have,has been swept ruthlessly away,and no benefactions and research endow-
      ments can make up for the change in character which the city has suffered.
    这个句子里有三个定语从句,由于第一和第三定语从句都较短,我们将它们译成定语。
第二个定语从句较长,我们将它拆译成与主句平行的分句:
    在牛津,大学城始终应具有的那份宁静已被无情地一扫而空,任何警行和对研究的资助
都无法弥补这个城市所遭受的这种特征上的变化。
例7. Many firms,for instance,have great difficulty in obtaining technical or scientific
      books from libraries because they are unwilling to have their names entered as hav-
      ing taken out such and such a book for fear the agents of other firms should be able
      to trace the kind of research they are likely to be undertaking.
    这个句子尽管比较长,但结构不算复杂,包含一个原因状语从句、一个条件状语从句、一
个动名词结构和一个定语从句,由于定语从句较短,可以将其译成定语,全句可按原文的顺
序译出:
    例如,很多公司感到从图书馆借阅技术或科学书籍很为难,因为他们不愿意由于借出如
此这般的书而将名字登记下来,以免其他公司的情报人员打听到他们可能正在从事的某项
研究工作。
例8. Besides,many of their braver sisters,who are daring to compete with men in other
      fields,find that male opposition is still strong, and that society is still ready to ex-
    plain a woman's success by reasons that have nothing to do with her intelligence.
    这个句子包含两个定语从句和两个宾语从句。由于两个定语从句不长,可译成定语,全
句可按原文顺序译出:
    另外,他们中许多更为勇敢的在其他领城里敢于同男人竞争的姐妹们发现,来自男性的
阻力仍然很大,他们还发现,世人仍然喜欢借助于与妇女智力无关的理由来解释妇女们的成
功。

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